|The Sailor Starlights|
Top to bottom: Sailor Star Maker, Healer, and Fighter
|Affiliations:||Kakyuu, Sailor Team|
|Sailor Star Fighter|
|Name:||Kou Seiya (星野 光)|
|English Name:||Seiya Lights|
|Birthday:||July 30 (Leo)|
|Sailor Star Maker|
|Name:||Kou Taiki (大気 光)|
|English Name:||Taiki Lights|
|Birthday:||May 30 (Gemini)|
|Sailor Star Healer|
|Name:||Kou Yaten (夜天 光)|
|English Name:||Yaten Lights|
|Birthday:||February 8 (Aquarius)|
The Sailor Starlights are a group of three fictional characters introduced in the Sailor Stars of the Sailor Moon metaseries. In the manga, they were relatively minor characters, many of which appeared toward the end of the series to represent the vast number of Sailor Senshi spread out across the galaxy. In the anime, however, they were given a major role, sometimes even acting as protagonists. They first appear in Act 43 of the manga and Episode 173 of the anime.
The group itself is composed of Sailor Star Fighter, Sailor Star Healer and Sailor Star Maker; when in civilian form they go by the pseudonyms Kou Seiya, Kou Yaten, and Kou Taiki respectively. They come from the fictional planet Kinmoku, which has been destroyed, and disguise themselves as male pop stars (The Three Lights) in order to hide their true identities as they search for their lost princess, Kakyuu. It is unknown whether they have civilian identities on their own world or what they might be called there.
Their exact relationship to each other is unknown; according to the manga they aren't siblings. The three share one name, Kou, which is always second when their full names are given. Because this is the location of the given name in Japanese order, it is usually assumed that they have different family names but one given name. "Kou" translates to "light," among other things, making the name "Three Lights" a pun. In the English manga, "Kou" was translated to "Lights" and was used as their shared family name.
The name "Three Lights" (also stylized as "3 Lights") is taken from the Shinto concept of san hikari (literally "three lights"). These three lights are the sun, moon, and stars, each with a specific color and properties. The roses worn by the Three Lights while in concert correspond to these three colors: the sun is red (Seiya's rose), the moon is white (Taiki's rose), and the stars are yellow (Yaten's rose). The characters' titles as Senshi (Maker, Healer, and Fighter) may also be connected to the Hindu Trimurti: the creator, the preserver, and the destroyer.
In the manga, as civilians the Starlights are known as the 'Three Lights-' an all-female trio who pose as male idol singers, but in the anime Sailor Stars , while on Earth they actually gained the bodies of males in their civilian forms, becoming women when transforming into Sailor Senshi. Since in the anime they are shown to be male when in civilian (Earth) form, there is much debate amongst fans as to the true gender of the Three Lights. In the anime, Kakyuu confirmes the male appearance to be their Earth civilian form when she asks Seiya if he "uses that appearance on Earth". Seiya acknowledges this is true. Towards the end of Sailor Stars, Seiya tells Usagi, "I wanted to tell you my feelings because Seiya's time is short" indicating further that the form taken is only his civilian form on Earth. The civilian forms taken by the three on Kinmoku are unknown.
Before coming to Earth, the three Starlights served as protectors of Princess Kakyuu on Kinmoku. The musicals state Kinmoku is located in a solar system called the Galaxy System. They state in Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin they are from somewhere in Sagittarius. Neither the anime or manga provide specific details of Kinmoku's location.
According to Seiya in the anime, who explains their history to Usagi via musical telepathy, Sailor Galaxia attacked Kinmoku in force, with her Sailor Animamates creating an army of phage that swept over the planet. Sailor Star Fighter reveals that, without Kakyuu, the only way the Starlights had of protecting themselves was to kill the phage outright, which also kills the humans they were created from. Because of this, the Sailor Starlights initially go after phage on Earth with a killing intent. They are later dissuaded from this course after Eternal Sailor Moon demonstrates her ability to restore the phage to their human selves.
After Princess Kakyuu left Kinmoku to escape Galaxia's assault, Sailor Star Fighter, Star Healer, and Star Maker abandoned the planet to find her. No one else survived Sailor Galaxia's onslaught. The Starlights make references to the comrades they left behind in battle, possibly implying other Senshi who lost their lives on Kinmoku. The three also bring up their family and friends; however, the anime does not reveal any details on the three Senshi's Kinmoku families. The guilt of being the only survivors, of having lived by running away, and the search for redemption by saving their planet serve as the underlying themes for the Starlights through the course of the anime.
After escaping from Kinmoku, the Starlights were able to track Kakyuu to Earth and then Japan. The Starlights took male civilian forms - Seiya, Taiki, and Yaten - and became idol singers. They did this to attract as much attention as possible. Their music is embedded with a telepathic broadcast that the Princess (and later Usagi and Michiru) can feel, serving as a beacon to guide Kakyuu to them.
By the start of the Sailor Stars anime, the Starlights, now the Three Lights, have become major celebrities across the country. All four of the Guardian Senshi have at some point joined their fanclub, with Ami Mizuno being the first to discover the band (she's member #25). Only Usagi is unaware of them. Several episodes feature the Three Lights having to deal with fans.
Later, the Three Lights all attend Jūban High School. As humans, they're all very popular with the Juban students. As Starlights, they distance themselves from the other Senshi, deeming Earth as not being their responsibility. They come into conflict with the Outer Senshi on multiple occasions, as the Outer Senshi view them as invaders. The two groups only reconcile after Uranus and Neptune are mortally wounded by Galaxia, when Uranus charges Star Fighter with protecting Sailor Moon and then dies alongside Neptune.
The Starlights prove to be very resilient and exceptionally powerful, surviving multiple direct battles with Galaxia herself. In all, they clash with Galaxia three times: once soon after Kakyuu's death in which they are saved by Chibichibi; again after the deaths of Uranus and Neptune; and a third time to defend Eternal Sailor Moon, in which they become pure energy to battle Galaxia across space itself. Apart from Sailor Moon, they are the only other beings in the galaxy to survive all the way through to the end.
Kou Seiya (星野 光 Seiya Kō?) is the leader of the Sailor Starlights and the lead vocals for the Three Lights. In general, Seiya acts arrogant and tends to be, at least on the surface, confident in his/her own abilities.
In the manga, Seiya beats Haruka Tenoh, the physically strongest of the Senshi (and most possible an equal match to Makoto Kino/ Sailor Jupiter), in American football and raises the suspicions of the Sailor Soldiers as to her identity. She also develops deep feelings for Usagi, kissing her and thinking as she walks away, "We are of different stations in the universe. It might be unrequited love."
In the anime, Taiki and Yaten consider him prone to bouts of childishness (such as when he shows off his basketball skills in front of the school), but generally follow his lead. He hates losing, giving up, or being told he's not good enough. He also behaves arrogantly, saying once, "Usually girls are happy when they see me." "Why?" Usagi asks. "Because I'm cool," he says.)
Over the course of the series, Seiya develops strong feelings for Usagi and his attempts to forge a bond with her provides the primary romantic tension of the season. From their first meeting on, Seiya calls Usagi odango, like Mamoru does. The two even go on a date at an amusement park, which prematurely ends when Sailor Iron Mouse attacks. Seiya makes his interest in her clear when they spend time together practicing softball, telling her, "I like your light." However, Seiya's feelings are not fully reciprocated and acknowledges the one-sided romance, finally kissing her cheek and saying "I wish I had met you sooner." After Galaxia's defeat, before leaving earth, Usagi tells him that they will always be friends.
The relationship between Sailor Star Fighter and Princess Kakyuu is slightly ambiguous. In the manga, the princess had a lover who was killed by Galaxia. In the anime, it is implied Seiya's romantic feelings for Usagi may be a confusion with similar feelings for Kakyuu—when he daydreams of his home planet, he thinks lovingly of an image of his princess, which is suddenly superimposed by an image of Usagi (much as Usagi had seen Seiya's image overlaid by Mamoru in previous episodes). In the image poem released for his CD single, however, he suggests that his feelings for her are because he is "carrying the heart of a boy."
Seiya's responsibilities in the band are lead vocals, keyboards, lyrics, and composition. S/he was seen in the anime playing the drums very angrily in their hideout because they think their princess has not heard them yet. After this, Seiya is not seen on the drums again. S/he also enjoys American football and belongs to the club at school. Other "likes" include hamburgers and Physical Education. S/he has trouble with girls and with Literature class, and is blood type A. Seiya is meant to give the impression of a combination of Haruka and Mamoru, and was modelled after Jenny Shimizu.
Kou Taiki (大気 光 Taiki Kō?) is the most intellectual. His/Her abilities rival that of Ami Mizuno (see below), though s/he considers her romantic notions foolish. In the anime, Ami's appeal for him to see the good in dreaming does begin to have an effect, however. In combat with a phage, Star Maker is the first of the Starlights to willingly allow Sailor Moon to heal the monster rather than trying to kill it herself. She spares the monster only because it had been a teacher who Ami respected. Later in the series, as he is beginning to lose hope in finding Princess Kakyuu, he visits a sick girl in the hospital. She shows him a drawing of the Princess that she sees when she listens to the Three Lights' song. With renewed hope, Taiki returns to the Three Lights. In the anime, he sometimes wears glasses.
Like Yaten, Taiki believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi after learning she is Sailor Moon, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Guardian Senshi, for them all to work together. However, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars.
Taiki's responsibilities in the band are background vocals, keyboards, lyrics, and guitar. S/he also enjoys poetry and belongs to the Literary club at school. Other "likes" include sushi and every class at school, especially Literature. S/he has trouble with arguments, and is blood type AB. Taiki is meant to be more distant than Setsuna.
Kou Yaten (夜天 光 Yaten Kō?) is often distant and cynical about everything. Yaten does not like to socialize or do sports. His/her remarks are often sharp-edged and blunt, which further separates him/her from the world. At one point, the other Starlights even chastise Yaten for behaving in a way that might reduce the number of fans. However, he and Luna get along well. At one point during episode 178, Luna inspires Yaten to keep on fighting. In the course of the season Yaten bonds with Minako Aino who takes a liking to him. Their intricate relationship becomes evident in episode 192 where Minako enters an idol audition and Yaten is one of the jurors.
In the manga, Yaten is a female that dresses up as a male. Blunt, and to the point, for example antagonizing Michiru Kaioh for her choice of lipstick. Yaten doesn't interact with the people around her much. She wants to focus on the mission most of all. She is egotistical and nurses grudges, and she hates injury.
In the anime, he has the most spiritual awareness of the Starlights, and is able to tell when Starseeds are taken by Sailor Galaxia. He views humans as untrustworthy and wants to find Princess Kakyuu so they can leave Earth as quickly as possible. This comes further to light when they discover that Usagi is Sailor Moon. Yaten believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Guardian Senshi, for them all to work together. His view is shared by Taiki as well as Sailors Uranus and Neptune. However, also like Taiki, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars.
Yaten's responsibilities in the band are background vocals, keyboards, and song arrangement. S/he also enjoys photography, but doesn't belong to any school club, preferring to just go home. Other "likes" include caviar and Art class. S/he has trouble with physical exertion and (by extension) Physical Education, and is blood type B.
The Starlights are featured in several of the Sailor Moon musicals (Sailor Stars, Eien Densetsu, and their revised editions, plus Ryuusei Densetsu, and Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin). As in the manga, they are portrayed as women dressed as males, though their personalities are clearly from the anime. However, many cast members regard the original Three Lights during Anza Ooyama's stage to have personalities which are different than the original works., and scenes starring them are referred to as "Confusion Scenes"  In one Fankan the Trio is even referred to as "our Beloved best in the Galaxy Singing Dancing Miracle Super Monkey Guys"  Seiya is portrayed as being eager to assist the Earth's Senshi in their battle with Galaxia, while Yaten and Taiki are more reluctant. However, Yaten is portrayed as being less cynical and more airheaded, often behaving similar to Minako Aino. Taiki is also more of a womanizer, several times hitting on Michiru by telling her that he is a big fan of her music, to which Yaten says, "You say that to every girl you meet!" Seiya is also explicitly referred to as "Leader" by the other two.
In their songs, the Starlights refer to themselves as "Soldiers of the Stars."
Of the pairings implied and explicit in the anime, only Seiya and Usagi's relationship is at all presented in the musicals. Among the musicals with Starlights, only Eien Densetsu includes Usagi and Seiya's interactions as a romantic subplot similar to the Sailor Stars anime. Sailor Moon Sailor Stars touches on a special bond between Seiya and Usagi, but it is not as deeply explored. In Ryuusei Densetsu, Mamoru is not killed by Galaxia, so there is no romantic interplay between Usagi and Seiya (though Usagi does make Mamoru jealous several times by saying Seiya is better looking than him).
In all musicals, Minako and the other Guardian Senshi are fans of the Three Lights, as in the anime. The Outer Senshi are still suspicious of the Starlights, though the Haruka and Seiya rivalry is generally absent. In two of the plays, Haruka and Michiru are the first to realize that the Three Lights are also Senshi. In all three musicals, it is the Starlights who tell the other Senshi who they really are - the Starlights always seem to know the civilian identities of the Guardians and Outers without needing to be told, though Sailor Moon's ownership of the Silver Crystal is sometimes revealed by Kakyuu.
After the Starlights find Princess Kakyuu (only in Eien Densetsu, its revised edition, and Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin), they travel with the others to the Galaxy Cauldron as in the manga.
As in the anime, the Starlights are never killed by Galaxia and help protect Sailor Moon after the others are (temporarily) destroyed. Unlike the manga and anime, the other Senshi do not always die fighting Galaxia and when they do they are always resurrected before the final battle. In some versions of the musicals, the Starlights are the only Senshi other than Sailor Moon who successfully wound Galaxia via a combined attack, as in the anime.
The sixth musical, Shin Densetsu Kourin, features Galaxia but not the Starlights.
Special powers and items
Like all Sailor Senshi, the Star Lights are given special powers and items that aid in their missions as soldiers of their planet and ruler.
- Fighter Star Power, Make-Up! — Changes Seiya into Sailor Star Fighter (and, in the anime, back into a female).
- Maker Star Power, Make-Up! — Changes Taiki into Sailor Star Maker (and, in the anime, back into a female).
- Healer Star Power, Make-Up! — Changes Yaten into Sailor Star Healer (and, in the anime, back into a female).
- Star Serious Laser — Sailor Star Fighter's attack, a focused light blast.
- Star Gentle Uterus — Sailor Star Maker's attack, an explosion of lights. Tokyopop altered the name to "Star Gentle Creator."
- Star Sensitive Inferno — Sailor Star Healer's attack, a circular blast of lightning.
- Star Healer Beam, Star Healer Tornado, and Star Healer Worm — additional attacks listed in the Materials Collection for Sailor Star Healer. It was never specified what they did nor were they ever used in the any version of the series.
- Star Fighter Kick, Star Fighter Punch, Star Fighter Uppercut, and Star Fighter Attack — additional attacks listed in the Materials Collection for Sailor Star Fighter. It was never specified what they did nor were they ever used in the any version of the series. The names alone show that the first three attacks were likely physical attacks.
- Star Maker Relaxation, Star Maker Strike, and Star Maker Music Box — additional attacks listed in the Materials Collection for Sailor Star Maker. It was never specified what they did nor were they ever used in the any version of the series, however little notes were added for two of them.
- Starlights Fusion Tempest — A special combined attack from all three Starlights and the only physical attack other than the Sword of Sealing able to physically hurt Sailor Galaxia. It is only named in the Eien Denstesu musical, but something similar is seen in Episode 199 of the anime. In the manga, Sailor Kakyuu uses a similarly named attack called Kinmoku Fusion Tempest.
- Star Yell — The palm sized star-shaped device used by the Starlights to launch their attacks. It is also sometimes called the Sailor Star Yell. It only appears in the anime.
- Sailor Change Star — According to Bandai, this is a two piece set of the microphone and brooch used by the Starlights to transform. According to Naoko Takeuchi's own notes, the brooches contains the Sailor Crystals of the Starlights, similar to those of Sailor Moon and Sailor Chibi Moon.
- They can each grow a pair of angelic wings in the manga.
In the Italian dub, the Starlights were always men, and simply summoned their twin sisters instead of transforming, as the original deception was very controversial in Italy. Similarly in the Russian dub, the Sailor Starlights were consistently referred to as men, even in their Senshi forms (despite the visible breasts). However, they had different voice actors in their civilian and senshi forms. Some countries implied that they were still men, even when transformed, or were women in civilian form. The North American, French, Swedish, Dutch, and Hungarian dubs did not get the rights to this season, so they never appeared. In the Korean dub, the Sailor Starlights were female in both their civilian and senshi forms. This change was made to make them become straight women, but this made Usagi's and Seiya's relationship more like a homosexual relationship than a heterosexual relationship.
In fact, the anime made them transsexuals instead of cross-dressers to avoid the controversy caused by Uranus and Neptune's relationship. This made Seiya and Usagi's relationship heterosexual in the anime. In the manga, Yaten was a heterosexual woman and Taiki was an asexual woman. The anime implies that Yaten has feelings for Minako Aino and Taiki for Ami Mizuno and Makoto Kino, although nothing clear comes from either.
The Starlights are usually falsely attributed to the fifth season not being dubbed into English. Despite popular belief, this is really because Toei would not sell the rights to it. However, it has been reported that an independent British company attempted to produce a dub, but later backed down claiming they were dressed provocatively for a children's program. The French dub reportedly did not dub the series viewing the idea of transsexuals too risque for children, however.
Series creator Naoko Takeuchi has expressed surprise at Toei Animation's decision to make the Starlights lead characters, but she was even more shocked by their treatment of the Starlights' gender. Originally, they were women who merely disguise themselves as men on Earth. In the anime, they physically become men, and change back to females only when transforming into their Senshi forms. Takeuchi was annoyed at the change and said that it contradicted her intention that all Sailor Soldiers be female. The change was directly overseen by director Takuya Igarashi. Takeuchi originally designed the trio without their ponytails, but the ponytails were added after it was explained to her that short-haired dolls were difficult to make. They also took on larger roles than Takeuchi had originally intended.
Because they pose as a musical group, the Starlights are given numerous character songs, a few of which figure in anime episodes.
- "Nagareboshi he" (Shooting Star) - A group song which figures in the plot of both the anime and manga. They use it to try carrying their message to Princess Kakyuu in order to find her.
- "Todokanu Omoi: My Friend's Love" (Unreachable Feelings: My Friend's Love) - A group song from the anime, also released as a CD single.
- "Bokutachi no Uta wo Kite" (Listen to our Song) - Another group song from the anime, this is the instrumental version of "Todokanu Omoi" and was performed during the joint concert with Michiru Kaioh. A violin is used in place of the vocals.
- "Ginga Ichi Mibun Chigai na Kataomoi" (A Galaxy of Difference: One-Sided Love) - Seiya's anime image song. Also a phrase used by Seiya in the manga when she says goodbye to Usagi.
- "Chikara wo Awasete" (Combining Strengths) - Taiki's anime image song.
- "Mayonaka Hitori" (Alone at Midnight) - Yaten's anime image song.
- "Chasin' After You" - The main pop piece performed by the Three Lights in the musicals, taking the place of "Todokanu Omoi" and "Nagareboshi he." Two album versions exist, as the instrumentals were remixed for the 12th musical, as well as a Special "Yaten Version" sung by Yaten, Sailor Moon, Uranus, Pluto and Mars. Hikari Ono, as Taiki, sang a solo version of her own during the Super Revue Musical Show in 2001.
- "See Me, Bokutachi No Jidai" - Another group pop song from the musicals.
- "I Miss You" - Explicitly states Seiya's romantic feelings to Usagi, juxtaposed against Usagi's longing for the missing Mamoru.
- "Knockin' Down Hesitation" - A song for which the Three Lights provide background vocals for Usagi.
- "Yume no Naka e" - A Japanese pop hit from the 1980s which was covered by many artists through the years and served as the ending theme for Kare Kano. In the final performance of Eien Densetsu (Kaiteiban) The Final First Stage!!, Yaten and Taiki's actresses gave an impromptu performance of this song.
- "A Shooting Star Light" - A song from the twelfth musical. It serves as the Starlights' battle cry.
- "Kakyuu to Three Lights" - A piece focusing on their interaction with Princess Kakyuu, in which she advises the Starlights to fight alongside Sailor Moon.
- "Sailor War Supreme" - A production number combining many Senshi themes, including parts of "Chasin' After You" used as a leitmotif.
- "What For!? Shinjitsu no Kajitsu" - Another Production members, it uses a combination of pieces from "Get Across The Moon," "A Shooting Star Light," "By Heaven! Kami Nomi zo Shiru," and "Prince of the Earth" as medley as well as its own unique verses.
- In the anime, Kou Seiya is voiced by the late Shiho Niiyama, Taiki by Narumi Tsunoda, and Yaten by Chika Sakamoto.
- In the musical version, each Starlight has been played by two actresses: Seiya by Sayuri Katayama and Chinatsu Akiyama, Taiki by Hikari Ono and Akiko Nakayama, and Yaten by Momoko Okuyama and Mikako Tabe.
- LGBT themes in comics
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7. Unknown parameter
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<ref>tag; name "materials" defined multiple times with different content
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1996). "Act 44". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- Emily Ravenwood, http://www.alltrees.org/anime/willowandoak/sm.stars.php
- Yamamoto, Guji Yukitaka. "Kami no Michi 10". Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Rogers, Michelle Rogers. "Henshin: Sailor Moon Notes". Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Starlight Pops The Hindu Trimurti". Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Episode 95 From the episode Kakyuu says, "Do you use that appearance on Earth?" (referring to the male appearance) Seiya replies, "Oh.. to find the only lady here, this was more convenient." (blushes)
- Episode 195
- Stated by Galaxia and the Fake Mamoru in Eien Densetsu (Kaiteiban) The Final First Stage!!
- Stated in the song Sailor War Supreme
- Episode 190.
- Act 46. "The Manga of Naoko Takeuchi". Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- Episode 174. Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 174". Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Episode 181.
- Episode 187.
- Episodes 194 and 195.
- Episode 200.
- Act 46.
- Episode 195.
- SAILORMUSIC.NET >> Lyrics >> Prologue & Poem Sailor Starfighter
- "Ken Arromdee's Sailor Moon FAQ". Retrieved 2007-01-01. Taken from the May 1996 Nakayoshi.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 177". Archived from the original on 14 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 185". Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 178". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 192". Retrieved 27 December 2009.
- 1997 Sailor Moon Musical, 1997 Sailor Stars Kaiteiban omake, the narrator Yuuta Mochizuki (Tuxedo Mask) comments on the adlibs the Three Lights made.(The adlib joke scene by them is called "Confusion Three Lights".)
- Ad-libbed on the final preference of Eien Densetsu; Michiru: From here on out it's a Confusion Scene." Haruka: We wanted to do one too...
- Shin Densetsu Kourin fankan in 1998
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1997 Sailor Stars Kaiteiban, Stage 1, meeting between Three Lights and Haruka and Michiru after the overture and "Chasin' After You"
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1998 Eien Densetsu Kaiteiban
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1997 Sailor Stars Kaiteiban, Stage 1, conversation before "Sailor War Supreme"
- Translation of Takeuchi's note: Star Maker Relaxation (what kind of move could thatbe?), Star Maker Strike (a bit ecchi), Star Maker Music Box.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5. Available online at Manga Style!
- "BLACK MOON - Sailor Moon, created by Naoko Takeuchi". Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Picture Collection 5
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1998 Eien Densetsu kaiteiban omake - Fan Appreciation Event
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2006.
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