Nancy Campbell Cartwright (born October 25, 1957) is an American film and television actress, comedian and voice artist. She is best known for her long-running role as Bart Simpson on the animated television series The Simpsons. Cartwright voices other characters for the show, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders, Kearney and Database.
Born in Dayton, Ohio, Cartwright moved to Hollywood in 1978 and trained alongside voice actor Daws Butler. Her first professional role was voicing Gloria in the animated series Richie Rich, which she followed with a starring role in the television movie Marian Rose White (1982) and her first feature film, Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983).
After continuing to search for acting work, in 1987 Cartwright auditioned for a role in a series of animated shorts about a dysfunctional family that was to appear on The Tracey Ullman Show. Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa Simpson, the middle child; when she arrived at the audition, she found the role of Bart—Lisa's brother—to be more interesting. Matt Groening, the series' creator, allowed her to audition for Bart and offered her the role on the spot. She voiced Bart for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, and in 1989, the shorts were spun off into a half-hour show called The Simpsons. For her subsequent work as Bart, Cartwright received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992 and an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in the Field of Animation in 1995.
Cartwright has voiced dozens of animated characters, including Chuckie Finster in Rugrats and All Grown Up!, Rufus in Kim Possible, Mindy in Animaniacs, Margo Sherman in The Critic and Chip in The Kellys. In 2000, she published her autobiography, My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy, and four years later adapted it into a one-woman play.
Nancy Cartwright was born in Dayton, Ohio, on October 25, 1957, the fourth of Frank and Miriam Cartwright's six children. She grew up in Kettering, Ohio, and discovered her talent for voices at an early age. While in the fourth grade, she won a school-wide speech competition with her performance of Rudyard Kipling's How the Camel Got His Hump. Cartwright attended Fairmont West High School, and participated in the school's theater and marching band. She regularly entered public speaking competitions, placing first in the "Humorous Interpretation" category at the National District Tournament two years running. The judges often suggested to her that she should perform cartoon voices. Cartwright graduated from high school in 1976 and accepted a scholarship from Ohio University. She continued to compete in public speaking competitions; during her sophomore year, she placed fifth in the National Speech Tournament's exposition category with her speech "The Art of Animation".
In 1977, Cartwright landed a part-time job doing voice-overs for commercials on WING radio in Dayton. A representative from Warner Bros. Records visited WING and later sent Cartwright a list of contacts in the animation industry. One of these was Daws Butler, known for voicing characters such as Huckleberry Hound, Snagglepuss, Elroy Jetson and Yogi Bear. Cartwright called him, and left a message in a Cockney accent on his answering machine. Butler immediately called her back and agreed to be her mentor. He mailed her a script and instructed her to send him a tape recording of herself reading it. Once he received the tape, Butler critiqued it and sent her notes. For the next year they continued in this way, completing a new script every few weeks. Cartwright described Butler as "absolutely amazing, always encouraging, always polite".
Cartwright returned to Ohio University for her sophomore year, but transferred to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) so she could be closer to Hollywood and Butler. Her mother, Miriam, died late in the summer of 1978. Cartwright nearly changed her relocation plans but, on September 17, 1978, "joylessly" left for Westwood, California.
While attending UCLA, which did not have a public speaking team, Cartwright continued training as a voice actor with Butler. She recalled, "every Sunday I’d take a 20-minute bus ride to his house in Beverly Hills for a one-hour lesson and be there for four hours ... They had four sons, they didn’t have a daughter and I kind of fitted in [sic] as the baby of the family." Butler introduced her to many of the voice actors and directors at Hanna-Barbera. After she met the director Gordon Hunt, he asked her to audition for a recurring role as Gloria in Richie Rich. She received the part, and later worked with Hunt on several other projects. At the end of 1980, Cartwright signed with a talent agency and landed a lead role in a pilot for a sitcom called In Trouble. Cartwright described the show as "forgettable, but it jump-started my on-camera career". She graduated from UCLA in 1981 with a degree in theater. During the summer, Cartwright worked with Jonathan Winters as part of an improvisation troupe at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio.
Returning to Los Angeles, Cartwright won the lead role in the television movie Marian Rose White. Janet Maslin, a critic for The New York Times, described Cartwright as "a chubby, lumbering, slightly cross-eyed actress whose naturalness adds greatly to the film's impact". Cartwright replied by sending Maslin a letter insisting she was not cross-eyed, and included a photograph. Later, Cartwright auditioned for the role of Ethel, a girl who becomes trapped in a cartoon world in the third segment of Twilight Zone: The Movie. She met with director Joe Dante and later described him as "a total cartoon buff, and once he took a look at my resume and noticed Daws Butler's name on it, we were off and running, sharing anecdotes about Daws and animation. After about twenty minutes, he said, 'considering your background, I don't see how I could cast anyone but you in this part!'" It was her first role in a feature film. The segment was based on The Twilight Zone television series episode "It's a Good Life", which was later parodied in The Simpsons episode "Treehouse of Horror II" (1992).
Cartwright continued to do voice work for projects including Pound Puppies, Popeye and Son, Snorks, My Little Pony and Saturday Supercade. She joined a "loop group", and recorded vocals for characters in the background of films, although in most cases the sound was turned down so that very little of her voice was heard. She did minor voice-over work for several films, including The Clan of the Cave Bear (1986), Silverado (1985), Sixteen Candles (1984), Back to the Future 2 (1989) and The Color Purple (1985). The most notable of these was a role in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) as a shoe that was "dipped" in acid. She described it as her first "off-screen death scene", and worked to correctly convey the emotion involved.
In 1985, she auditioned for a guest spot as Cynthia in Cheers. The audition called for her to say her line and walk off the set. Cartwright decided to take a chance on being different and continued walking, leaving the building and returning home. The production crew was confused, but she received the part. In search of more training as an actor, Cartwright joined a class taught by Hollywood coach Milton Katselas. He recommended that Cartwright study La strada, a 1956 Italian film starring Giulietta Masina and directed by Federico Fellini. She began performing "every imaginable scene" from La strada in her class and spent several months trying to secure the rights to produce a stage adaptation. She visited Italy with the intention of meeting Fellini and requesting his permission in person. Although they never met, Cartwright kept a journal of the trip and later wrote a one-woman play called In Search of Fellini, partially based on her voyage. The play was co-written by Peter Kjenaas, and Cartwright won a Drama-Logue Award after performing it in Los Angeles in 1995. In a 1998 interview, she stated her intention to make it into a feature film.
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Cartwright is best known for her role as Bart Simpson on the long-running animated television show The Simpsons. On March 13, 1987, Nancy Cartwright auditioned for a series of animated shorts about a dysfunctional family that was to appear on The Tracey Ullman Show, a sketch comedy program. Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa Simpson, the older daughter. After arriving at the audition, she found that Lisa was simply described as the middle child and at the time did not have much personality. Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart, described as "devious, underachieving, school-hating, irreverent, [and] clever". Creator Matt Groening let her try out for Bart, and gave her the job on the spot. Bart's voice came naturally to Cartwright, as she had previously used elements of it in My Little Pony, Snorks, and Pound Puppies. Cartwright describes Bart's voice as easy to perform compared with other characters. The recording of the shorts was often primitive; the dialog was recorded on a portable tape deck in a makeshift studio above the bleachers on the set of the The Tracey Ullman Show. Cartwright, the only cast member to have been professionally trained in voice acting, described the sessions as "great fun". However, she wanted to appear in the live-action sketches and occasionally showed up for recording sessions early, hoping to be noticed by a producer.
In 1989, the shorts were spun off into a half-hour show on the Fox network called The Simpsons. Bart quickly became the show's breakout personality and one of the most celebrated characters on television—his popularity in 1990 and 1991 was known as "Bartmania". Bart was described as "television's brightest new star" by Mike Boone of The Gazette and was named 1990's "entertainer of the year" by Entertainment Weekly. Despite Bart's fame, however, Cartwright remained relatively unknown. During the first season of The Simpsons, Fox ordered Cartwright not to give interviews, because they did not want to publicize the fact that Bart was voiced by a woman. Cartwright's normal speaking voice is said to have "no obvious traces of Bart", and she believes her role is "the best acting job in the world", since she is rarely recognized in public. When she is recognized and asked to perform Bart's voice in front of children, Cartwright refuses because it "freaks [them] out". Bart's catchphrase "Eat My Shorts" was an ad-lib by Cartwright in one of the original table readings, referring to an incident from her high school days. Once while performing, members of the Fairmont High School marching band switched their chant from the usual "Fairmont West! Fairmont West!" to the irreverent "Eat my shorts!" Cartwright felt it appropriate for Bart, and improvised the line; it became a popular catchphrase on the show.
Cartwright voices several other characters on the show, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders, Kearney and Database. She first voiced Nelson in the episode "Bart the General" (season one, 1990). The character was to be voiced by Dana Hill, but Hill missed the recording session and Cartwright was given the role. She developed Nelson's voice on the spot and describes him as "a throat-ripper". Ralph Wiggum had originally been voiced by Jo Ann Harris, but Cartwright was assigned to voice the character in "Bart the Murderer" (season three, 1991). Todd Flanders, the only voice for which Cartwright used another source, is based on Sherman (voiced by Walter Tetley), the boy from Peabody's Improbable History, a series of shorts aired on The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show.
Cartwright received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992 for her performance as Bart in the episode "Separate Vocations" and an Annie Award in 1995 for Best Voice Acting in the Field of Animation. Bart was named one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century by Time, and in 2000, Bart and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, located at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.
Until 1998, Cartwright was paid $30,000 per episode. During a pay dispute in 1998, Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors, and made preparations for casting new actors. The dispute was resolved, however, and Cartwright received $125,000 per episode until 2004, when the voice actors demanded $360,000 an episode. A compromise was reached after a month, and Cartwright's pay rose to $250,000 per episode. Salaries were re-negotiated in 2008—as of 2009, the voice actors receive approximately $400,000 per episode.
In addition to her work on The Simpsons, Cartwright has voiced many other characters on several animated series, including Chuckie Finster in Rugrats and All Grown Up!, Margo Sherman in The Critic, Mindy in Animaniacs and Rufus the naked mole rat in Kim Possible. For the role of Rufus, Cartwright researched mole rats extensively, and became "a font of useless trivia". She was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program in 2004 for her work on the show. In 2001, Cartwright took over the Rugrats role of Chuckie Finster when Christine Cavanaugh retired. Cartwright describes Rufus and Chuckie as her two most difficult voices: "Rufus because my diaphragm gets a workout while trying to utilize the 18 vocal sounds a mole makes. Chuckie because ... he's an asthmatic with five personalities rolled into one—plus I have to do the voice the way [Cavanaugh] did it for 10 years." Other television shows that have used her voice work include Galaxy High; God, The Devil and Bob; Goof Troop; Mike, Lu & Og; The Replacements; Pinky and the Brain and Timberwolf. Cartwright has appeared on camera in numerous television shows and films, including Fame, Empty Nest, The Fresh Prince of Bel Air, Flesh & Blood, Godzilla and 24.
In 2000, Cartwright published her autobiography, My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. The book details her career (particularly her experiences as the voice of Bart) and contains stories about life behind the scenes of The Simpsons. Laura A. Bischoff of the Dayton Daily News commented that the book was the "ultimate insider's guide to The Simpsons". Critics complained that the book lacked interesting stories and was aimed mostly at fans of The Simpsons rather than a general audience.
Cartwright adapted My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy into a one-woman play in 2004. Cartwright has performed it at a variety of venues, including the August 2004 Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Scotland. The play received modest reviews, including criticism for a lack of inside stories about The Simpsons, and its "overweeningly upbeat" tone. David Chatterton of British Theatre Guide described the show as "interesting and entertaining, but not really a 'must see' even for Simpsons fans".
Cartwright has shown an interest in stock car racing and as of 2007 was seeking a NASCAR license. In 2001, she founded a production company called SportsBlast and created an online animated series called The Kellys. The series is focused on racing; Cartwright voices a seven-year-old named Chip Kelly. In 2002, SportsBlast received a Silver Remi Award from the WorldFest-Houston International Film Festival for The Kellys.
Cartwright met writer Warren Murphy on her birthday in 1988 and married him two months later. In her book, she describes Murphy as her "personal laugh track". The couple had two children, Lucy and Jack, before divorcing in 2002.
Cartwright was raised a Roman Catholic but joined the Church of Scientology in the late 1980s. She has said that before becoming involved with the church she was depressed that she did not have a "committed relationship", and wanted to get married and have children. She "thought that maybe [she] could find a relationship by going to a church". Cartwright attended a barbecue at a friend's house and noticed that all of the attendees were Scientologists with "thriving careers". Cartwright began reading the works of L. Ron Hubbard and found solace in a chapter about shedding the pain of loss. She said later, "I felt he was talking directly to me, I said to myself, 'I want to stop that feeling.'" Cartwright was awarded Scientology's Patron Laureate Award after she donated $10 million, almost twice her annual salary, to the Church in 2007.
Cartwright actively supports many nonprofit organizations, including Famous Fone Friends, the Make-A-Wish Foundation, and scientology-related The Way to Happiness Foundation. She is co-founder of "Happy House", a non-profit organization dedicated to building better families, and is a contributor to ASIFA-Hollywood's Animation Archive Project. In September 2007, Cartwright received the Make-a-Wish Foundation's Wish Icon Award "for her tremendous dedication to the Foundation's fundraising and wish-fulfillment efforts". In 2005, Cartwright created a scholarship at Fairmont High School "designed to aid Fairmont [graduates] who dream of following in her footsteps and studying speech, debate, drama or music" at Ohio University. In 2005, Cartwright was given the title of Honorary Mayor of Northridge, California (a neighborhood of Los Angeles) by the Northridge Chamber of Commerce.
In 2007, Cartwright was in a relationship with contractor Stephen Brackett. They planned to get married in Spring 2008. Brackett was the President and Treasurer of Brackett Construction in Hollywood, California; the construction company was founded in 1987 and had $8.5 million in sales in 2009. He was a fellow member of Scientology. Brackett reached the Operating Thetan level of OT V in Scientology, in 1989. He died in May 2009. According to The Monterey County Herald, Brackett leaped off of the Bixby Creek Bridge in Big Sur, California. Law enforcement stated, "There are no indications of foul play, and friends and relatives of Brackett said he was despondent because of financial troubles with his business."
In January 2009, Cartwright used Bart's voice in an automated telephone message to Scientologists, inviting them to an event in Hollywood, California. She opened the message in Bart's voice, saying "Yo, what's happenin' man, this is Bart Simpson [laugh]", then used her normal voice in most of the remaining message. In a 2000 interview, Cartwright explained that a character's voice is copyrighted and she can use Bart's voice in public but cannot record original dialogue without approval. Al Jean, executive producer of The Simpsons, said that "[the telephone calls were not] authorized by us", while The Simpsons creator Matt Groening commented that the issue had been "blown up beyond what was intended".
|1983||Twilight Zone: The Movie||Ethel|
|1985||Heaven Help Us||Girl at dance||Uncredited|
|Flesh + Blood||Kathleen|
|1986||My Little Pony: The Movie|| Gusty|
|1987||The Chipmunk Adventure||Arabian Prince|
|1988||Pound Puppies and the Legend of Big Paw||Bright Eyes|
|Yellow Pages||Stephanie||Titled Going Underground in US|
|Who Framed Roger Rabbit||Dipped Toon Shoe||Uncredited|
|1989||Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumberland||Page|
|The Little Mermaid||Additional voices|
|1992||Petal to the Metal||Fawn Deer||Short film|
|Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story||Additional voices||Direct-to-video release|
|The Land Before Time VI: The Secret of Saurus Rock||Dana||Direct-to-video release|
|1999||Wakko's Wish||Mindy||Direct-to-video release|
|2001||Timberwolf||Earl Squirrel||Direct-to-video release|
|2003||Rugrats Go Wild||Chuckie Finster|
|Kim Possible: The Secret Files||Rufus||Direct-to-DVD release|
|2007||The Simpsons Movie||Various characters|
|1980||The Richie Rich/Scooby-Doo Show||Gloria Patterson|
|1980–1984||Richie Rich||Gloria Glad|
|1981||Skokie||Unnamed character||TV film; uncredited|
|1982||Marian Rose White||Marian Rose White||TV film|
|The Rules of Marriage||Jill Murray||TV film|
|Tucker's Witch||Holly||Episode 1.5: "Terminal Case"|
|1983||Deadly Lessons||Libby Dean||TV film|
|1983, 1984||Fame||Muffin||Episode 2.23: "UN Week" and 3.9: "Secrets"|
|1983–1985||Shirt Tales||Kip Kangaroo|
|1983–1988||Alvin and the Chipmunks||Additional voices||Appeared in 59 episodes|
|1984–1985||Saturday Supercade||Kimberly||Space Ace segments|
|1984, 1985, 1994||ABC Weekend Special|| Karen Winsborrow|
|Appeared in three episodes|
|1985||Not My Kid||Jean||TV film|
|Cheers||Cynthia||Episode 4.5: "Diane's Nightmare"|
|1986||Bridges to Cross||Unnamed character||Episode "Memories of Molly"|
|Galaxy High School|| "Flat" Freddy Fender|
|Appeared in all 13 episodes|
|1986–1987||My Little Pony 'n Friends||Various characters|
|Pound Puppies||Bright Eyes||Appeared in 26 episodes|
|1987||Popeye and Son||Woody|
|Our House||Unnamed character||Episode 1.22: "Growing Up, Growing Old"|
|Mr. Belvedere||Gwen||Episode 4.1: "The Initiation"|
|Christmas Every Day||The Little Girl||TV film|
|1987–1989||The Tracey Ullman Show||Bart Simpson||The Simpsons shorts|
|1989||Dink, the Little Dinosaur||Additional voices|
|TV 101||Melinda||Episode 1.5: "On the Road"|
|Empty Nest||Ann||Episode 1.13: "Tears of a Clown"|
|1989–||The Simpsons|| Bart Simpson|
|1990||Bobby's World||Babysitter||Episode 1.3: "Adventures in Bobby Sitting"|
|1991||Big Bird's Birthday Celebration||Bart Simpson||TV special|
|1992||Raw Toonage||Fawn Dear||Appeared in all 12 episodes|
|1992–1993||Goof Troop||Pistol Pete||Appeared in nine episodes|
|1992, 2002–2004||Rugrats|| Junk Food Kid|
| Episode 2.4: "Showdown at Teeter-Totter Gulch/Mirrorland"|
Replaced Christine Cavanaugh in main role until the end of the series
|1993||The Pink Panther||Additional voices|
|Precious Victims||Ruth Potter||TV film|
|Appeared in three episodes|
|Bonkers||Fawn Deer||Appeared in three episodes|
|A Goof Troop Christmas||Pistol Pete|
|1994–1995||The Critic|| Margo Sherman|
|Appeared in all 23 episodes|
|1995||The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air||Ruby Jillette||Episode 5.21: "Save the Last Trance for Me"|
|The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat||Additional voices|
|Timon & Pumbaa||Pumbaa Jr.||Episode 1.3: "Never Everglades/The Laughing Hyenas: Cooked Goose"|
|Baywatch Nights||Frances O'Reilly||Episode 1.6: "976 Ways to Say I Love You"|
|1996||Vows of Deception||Terry||TV film|
|Sesame Street||Bart Simpson||Episode 28.1: "Maria in the Hospital: Part 1"|
|Pinky and the Brain||Mindy||Episode 4.9: "Star Warners"|
|1998–1999||Pinky, Elmyra & the Brain||Rudy Mookich||Appeared in 25 episodes|
|1999||Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot||Additional voices|
|Futurama||Bart Simpson doll||Episode 1.8: "A Big Piece of Garbage"|
|1999–2000||Mike, Lu & Og||Lu|
|2000||God, the Devil and Bob||Megan Allman||Appeared in all 13 episodes|
|2002||Rapsittie Street Kids: Believe in Santa||Todd||TV film|
|2002–2007||Kim Possible||Rufus||Appeared in 86 episodes|
|2003||Kim Possible: A Sitch in Time||Rufus||TV film|
|2003, 2005||Lilo & Stitch|| Phantasmo: Experiment 375|
| Episode 1.2: "Phantasmo: Experiment 375"|
Episode 2.22: "Rufus: Experiment #607"
|2003–2007||All Grown Up!||Chuckie Finster|
|2005||Kim Possible Movie: So the Drama||Rufus||TV film|
|Family Guy||Daffney||Episode 4.7: "Brian the Bachelor"|
|2006–2009||The Replacements||Todd Daring|
|2007||Random! Cartoons|| Chum Chum|
|Episode 1.23: "Fanboy"|
|24||Jeannie Tyler||Episode 6.11: "Day 6: 4:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m"|
|Disney Channel Games||Todd||TV miniseries|
|1991||The Simpsons||Bart Simpson|
|1991||The Simpsons: Bart vs. the Space Mutants||Bart Simpson|
|1991||The Simpsons: Bart's Nightmare||Bart Simpson|
|1996||The Simpsons Cartoon Studio||Various characters|
|1997||Virtual Springfield||Various characters|
|1998||Putt-Putt Enters the Race||Putt-Putt|
|1999||Simpsons Bowling||Various characters|
|2000||Putt-Putt Joins the Circus||Putt-Putt|
|2001||The Simpsons Wrestling||Bart Simpson|
|2001||The Simpsons Road Rage||Various characters|
|2002||Rugrats: Royal Ransom||Chuckie Finster|
|2002||The Simpsons Skateboarding||Various characters|
|2003||The Simpsons Hit & Run||Various characters|
|2004||Disney's Kim Possible 2: Drakken's Demise||Rufus|
|2007||The Simpsons Game||Various characters|
|1992||Primetime Emmy Award||Outstanding Voice-Over Performance||Bart Simpson||The Simpsons||Won|||
|1995||Annie Award||Outstanding Voice Acting in the Field of Animation||Bart Simpson||The Simpsons||Won|||
|1995||Drama-Logue Award||—||—||In Search of Fellini||Won|||
|2004||Daytime Emmy Award||Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program||Rufus||Kim Possible||Nominated|||
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Smith, Aidan (2004-06-20). "Little Voice". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ "Biography highlights". Nancycartwright.com. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kieswetter, John (2000, 12-18). "Bart Simpson's secrets revealed". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2009-02-06. Check date values in:
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Nancy Cartwright: Eat my shorts". The Independent (London). 2005-05-24. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 9–10.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 15–16.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 12–13.
- ↑ Cartwright, p. 14.
- ↑ "Just don't call me Bart". Scotland on Sunday. 2000-11-19.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 16–18.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 "And speaking of the Simpsons". Edinburgh Evening News. 2004-08-12. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ Cartwright, p. 19.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Cartwright, pp. 23–25.
- ↑ Terry Gross Interview on "Fresh Air" (Interview confirms transfer to UCLA) (2007-07-26). "Cartwright: It's Bearable Being Bart's Likeness". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ↑ Maslin, Janet (1982-01-19). "TV: 'Marian Rose White' in a mental institution". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 New York Times News Service (2007-07-26). "Bart is a good girl at heart; the mischievous little boy, who brings his iconoclastic status to the big screen, is really a middle aged woman". Guelph Mercury.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Cartwright, pp. 26–27.
- ↑ Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Castellaneta, Dan; Martin, Jeff; Reardon, Jim. (2003). Commentary for "Treehouse of Horror II", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Cartwright, pp. 27–28.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 Cartwright, p. 29.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Brockes, Emma (2004-08-02). "That's my boy". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Cartwright, pp. 30–33.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Hopkins, Tom (1998-04-27). "Voicing her ambitions - The Kettering native stretches her wings - from the sounds of Bart Simpson to producing films". Dayton Daily News.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 35–40
- ↑ "Bart's voice tells all". BBC News. 2000-11-10. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Turner, p. 21
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Cartwright, pp. 43–50.
- ↑ Turner, pp. 120–121
- ↑ Cassidy, John (1990-07-08). "Cartoon leads a revolt against apple-pie family — Simpsons". The Sunday Times.
- ↑ "Simpsons set for big screen". The Daily Telegraph. 2007-07-15. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ Kleinfield, N.R. (1990-04-29). "Cashing in on a Hot New Brand Name". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ Boone, Mike (1990-12-30). "Bart Simpson was ray of hope in a year of generally drab television". The Gazette.
- ↑ Harris, Mark (1990-12-28). "1. Bart Simpson". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- ↑ Bark, Ed (1990-07-15). "Bart Simpson's secret: he's a woman". Ottawa Citizen.
- ↑ Carroll, Larry (2007-07-26). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To 'Burns-Sexual' Smithers". MTV. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- ↑ Richmond, pp. 178–179
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 102–103.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 Moore, Roger (2007-07-25). "Nancy Cartwright, voice of Bart Simpson, has personal theme: 'Simpsons Forever'". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-09-13.
- ↑ Cartwright, p. 107.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ "Briefing–'Simpsons' score big in Prime-Time Emmys". Daily News of Los Angeles. 1992-08-03. p. L20.
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 "Legacy: 23rd Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1995)". Annie Awards. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ "TIME Magazine Cover: Bart Simpson". Time. 1990-12-31. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- ↑ "Hollywood Icons". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Glaister, Dan (2004-04-03). "Simpsons actors demand bigger share". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ "'Simpsons' Cast Goes Back To Work". CBS News. 2004-05-01. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Sheridan, Peter (2004-05-06). "Meet the Simpsons". Daily Express.
- ↑ "Simpsons cast sign new pay deal". BBC News. 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 248–249.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 50.2 Knutzen, Eirik (2002-08-18). "Voice behind Bart Simpson also lends her animated talents to other TV shows". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 McGuire, Mark (2004-05-31). "The Voice of Daffy Duck Picks up an Emmy Award". Times Union.
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 52.2 "Nancy Cartwright". FoxFlash. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- ↑ "Bart to the bone". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2004-03-12. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
- ↑ Bischoff, Laura A. (2000-10-29). "Inside look at 'The Simpsons' makes for a fun read". Dayton Daily News.
- ↑ "Pages". People. 2000-12-18. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
- ↑ Bacchus, Lee (2000-11-05). "We'd like to see more Bart and less Ralph". The Province.
- ↑ Sheridan, Rob (2000-12-23). "Life in Springfield isn't as fun and exciting as it seems". National Post.
- ↑ Hall, Julian (2004-08-10). "Nancy Cartwright: My Life As A 10-year-old Boy, Assembly Rooms, Edinburgh". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Logan, Brian (2004-08-11). "Nancy Cartwright". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Chatterton, David (2004). "Fringe 2004 Reviews (7)". British Theatre Guide. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Gordon, Elliott (2007-02-16). "Bart Simpson Does NASCAR". Edmunds Inside Line. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ "Nancy Cartwright On The Spot". Adweek. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ WorldFest-Houston International Film Festival. "Past Winners: 2002" (XLS). Press release. http://www.worldfest.org/downloads/WFH2002E.xls. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- ↑ Hopkins, Tom (1990-11-24). "Bart's voice is claim to fame - Kettering woman home to give thanks". Dayton Daily News.
- ↑ Cartwright, pp. 76–77.
- ↑ Keeps, David A. (2007-09-13). "Country charm? Ay caramba!". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 67.2 Broadway, Bill (1994-12-10). "The Pain is gone - Bart Simpson's 'voice' talks about her discovery of Scientology". Washington Post.
- ↑ Sweeney, Claire (2009-01-29). "Ay caramba! Bart Simpson is spruiking Scientology". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- ↑ Li, David K. (2008-01-31). "The Church of $impsontology". The New York Post. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 Ayres, Chris (2009-01-30). "Simpsons producers 'have a cow' as Bart lends his voice to Scientologists". The Times (London). Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ "$2 Million Gift Announced at Wish Night". Make-a-Wish Foundation. 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
- ↑ Moss, Meredith (2005-04-30). "Bart Gives Back - 'Simpsons' voice Nancy Cartwright returning to Fairmont with scholarship and one-woman show". Dayton Daily News.
- ↑ Harvey, Steve (2005-06-17). "Mayor Bart Simpson of Northridge? Don’t Have a Cow, Man". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- ↑ Rozen, Leah; Michelle Tauber (August 6, 2007). "D'oh! They're Hitting the Big Screen Catching Up with the Simpson Family". People magazine (www.people.com) 68 (6). Retrieved 2010-05-29. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- ↑ 75.0 75.1 Rusoff, Jane Wollman (The New York Times Syndicate) (July 29, 2007). "Nancy Cartwright, an American TV icon". Reading Eagle. p. E4.
- ↑ "Brackett Construction, Inc.". Standard & Poor's Register of Corporations (McGraw-Hill, Inc.). May 10, 2010.
- ↑ "New OT V Hubbard Solo Nots Auditing Course". Source Magazine (Church of Scientology) 65. February 1989.
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 78.2 "Los Angeles Man Dies After Fall From Bridge". The Monterey County Herald (Monterey, California: MediaNews Group). May 29, 2009.
- ↑ 79.0 79.1 "Will the Voice of Bart Simpson Get In Trouble for 'Unauthorized' Scientology Call?". Fox News. 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
- ↑ Olshansky, Elliot (2009-01-28). "Bart Simpson's voice being used to promote Scientology event". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- ↑ "Voice of Bart Simpson gives push to religion". Chicago Sun-Times. 2009-01-30.
- ↑ Baker, Jeff (2000-12-01). "Life from 'Cowabunga!' to 'Ay, Caramba'". The Oregonian.
- ↑ Getlen, Larry (2009-02-22). "Q&A: Matt Groening". New York Post. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- ↑ Ryan, Kyle (2009-03-25). "Matt Groening". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- <cite class="citation book">Cartwright, Nancy (2000). My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8600-5.</cite>
- <cite class="citation book">Richmond, Ray; Antonia Coffman (1997). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family. New York City: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638898-1. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- <cite class="citation book">Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 0-679-31318-4.</cite>
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