He began to work as assistant of the late mangaka Kyota Ishikawa. He made his manga debut in 1970 with Kareta Heya (A Desiccated Summer), published in the magazine Young Comic.
From 1976 to 1979, he created several hard-boiled comics with the scenarist Natsuo Sekigawa, such as City Without Defense, The Wind of the West is White and Lindo 3. From 1984 to 1991, Taniguchi and Natsuo Sekigawa produced the trilogy Bocchan No Jidai. In the 1990s, he came up with several albums, among which Aruku Hito (歩くひと?), Chichi no koyomi (The Almanac of My Father), and Keyaki no ki .
In 1992-1993 he collaborated with Garon Tsuchiya for the manga Blue Fighter (青の戦士 Ao no Senshi?), Knuckle Wars (ナックル・ウォーズ Nakkuru?) and Live! Odyssey (LIVE! オデッセイ?).
In 2001, he created the Icare (Icaro) series on texts by Mœbius. Jirô Taniguchi gained several prizes for his work. Among others, the Osamu Tezuka Culture Award (1998) for the trilogy Bocchan No Jidai, the Shogakukan prize with Inu wo Kau, and in 2003, the Alph'Art of the best scenario at the Angoulême International Comics Festival (France) for Haruka na Machi e. His work has been translated in many languages.
Far from the violent storylines often associated with young men's manga, Taniguchi has developed a very personal style, more adult. Along with other writers, like Tsukasa Hōjō, his comics focus more on the Japanese society and culture, with a subtle analysis of its customs and habits.
- 1979 - Lindo 3!
- 1980 - Muboushi Toshi
- 1980 - Ooinaru Yasei
- 1981/03 - Jiken Ya Kagyou - Trouble is my Business
- 1982/03 - Blue Fighter (Ao no Senshi)
- 1982/03 - Hunting Dog
- 1983/?? - Knuckle Wars – The Fist of Rebellion (Nakkuru – Ken no Ran)
- 1983/03 - Shin Jiken Ya Kagyou - New Trouble is my Business
- 1983/09 - Live! Odyssey
- 1984/02 - Seifuu Ha Shiroi
- 1984/12 - Rudo Boy
- 1985/10 - Enemigo
- 1986/01 - Hotel Harbour View
- 1986/10 - Blanca
- 1987/06 - Botchan no Jidai (坊っちゃんの時代?), based on Botchan, a 1906 novel by Natsume Sōseki
- 1988/05 - K
- 1988/06 - Ice Age Chronicle of the Earth
- 1990/01 - Hara Shishi Jiten
- 1990/09 - Garouden (Hungry Wolves Legend)
- 1991/06 - Samurai Non Grata
- 1992/04 - Aruku Hito -(歩くひと, translated in French as L'Homme qui Marche and English as The Walking Man)
- 1992/09 - Kaze No Sho
- 1992/10 - Inu wo Kau
- 1993/09 - Keyaki no Ki
- 1994/09 - Mori He - Into the Forest
- 1994/11 - Chichi no Koyomi
- 1996/04 - Benkei in New York (N.Y.の弁慶?)
- 1996/07 - Blanca II (Dog of God)
- 1997/10 - Kodoku no Gurume
- 1998/09 - Haruka na Machi e (translated in English as "Distant Neighborhood" - translated in french as "Quartier Lointain")
- 1999/01 - Tokyo Genshi Gyou
- 1999/12 - Sousaku Sha - Quest for the Missing Girl
- 2000/12 - Ikaru
- 2000/12 - Kamigami no Itadaki
- 2002/09 - Ten no Taka - Sky Hawk
- 2004/11 - Toudo no Tabibito - The Ice Wanderer
- 2005/03 - Seton
- 2005/12 - Hare Yuku Sora
- 2006/03 - Sampo Mono
- 2007/09 - Mahou no Yama (The Magic Mountain)
- 2008/03 - Fuyu no Doubutsu en - Zoo in Winter
- "Bibliographie de Jirô Taniguchi / 谷口ジロー". Retrieved 2008-08-02.
ca:Jiro Taniguchi gl:Taniguchi Jirō it:Jirō Taniguchi pl:Jirō Taniguchi zh:谷口治郎