Emakimono (絵巻物 emakimono?, lit. 'picture scroll'), often simply called emaki (絵巻?), is a horizontal, illustrated narrative form created during the 11th to 16th centuries in Japan. Emakimono combines both text and pictures, and is drawn, painted, or stamped on a handscroll. They depict battles, romance, religion, folk tales, and stories of the supernatural world. It is seen as the origin of modern manga.
History and physical characteristics
The tradition of the handscroll originated in India and came to Japan from China in the 6th or 7th century along with Buddhism. Interest in this manner of art and storytelling became popular during the Kamakura period partly as these portable scrolls were convenient for propagating new Buddhist sects.
The scrolls, made of paper or silk, were attached to a wooden dowel at the left end to be rolled up for storage. Rolled up, the scrolls were secured with a braided silk cord, then backed by silk. Secured, the scrolls could be carried, placed on shelves, or stored in elaborate lacquerware. The scrolls ranged in size, averaging 30 centimeters (1 ft.) in width and 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 ft.) in length. A normal story would take one to three scrolls in total.
Emakimono are read by exposing an arms-length of the scroll at a time, from right to left, as Japanese is written. It was common for there to be a written account of the story being illustrated either at the start of the scroll, or interspersed between the pictures. It is expected that the person viewing the scroll will re-roll the scroll back in its original form, much as one is supposed to rewind video tape after viewing it.
Emakimono also serve as some of the earliest and greatest examples of the otoko-e (Men's pictures) and onna-e (Women's pictures) styles of painting. There are many fine differences in the two styles, appealing to the aesthetic preferences of the genders. But perhaps most easily noticeable are the differences in subject matter. Onna-e, epitomized by the Tale of Genji handscroll, typically deals with court life, particularly the court ladies, and with romantic themes. Otoko-e, on the other hand, often recorded historical events, particularly battles. The Siege of the Sanjō Palace (1160), depicted in the painting "Night Attack on the Sanjō Palace" is a famous example of this style.
Well known examples
The most often discussed example of emakimono is the Genji Monogatari Emaki dating from about 1130. This emaki illustrates Murasaki Shikibu's epic The Tale of Genji. Written about the year 1000, the novel deals with the life and loves of Genji and the world of the Heian court after his death. While only 15% of the original scrolls remain, the fragments are protected as national treasures.
The Chōjū giga (Scroll of Frolicking Animals) is unusual in its own medium, as it does not contain any text, only pictures. It depicts scenes of animals in amusing scenes, analogizing Japanese society in the 12th century.
- "Emakimono: Japanese Picture Scrolls" by contributors to askasia.org, retrieved May 23, 2006
- "Emakimono" by Catherine Pagani, BookRags, retrieved May 23, 2006
- "Emaki" in the Encyclopedia of Shinto (Kokugakuin University)
- "The Choju Giga by Masakazu Yoshizawa"