Akira (アキラ) is a manga series by Katsuhiro Otomo. Set in a post-apocalyptic Neo-Tokyo, the work uses conventions of the cyberpunk genre to detail a saga of turmoil. Initially serialized in the pages of Young Magazine from 1982 until 1990, the work was collected in six volumes by Japanese publisher Kodansha. The work was first published in an English language version by the Marvel Comics imprint Epic Comics, one of the first manga works to be translated in its entirety. Otomo's art on the series is considered outstanding, and the work is a breakthrough for both Otomo and the manga form. An identically titled anime film adaptation was released in 1988, shortening the plot, but with its structure and scenes heavily informed by the manga and its serial origins.
The manga takes place in a vastly larger timeframe than the film and involves a far wider array of characters and subplots. Through the breadth of the work, Otomo explicates themes of social isolation, corruption and power.
Otomo's Akira projects – the manga and its film adaptation – marked his transition from a career primarily in the creation and design of printed manga to one almost exclusively in the creation, direction and design of anime motion pictures and television.
On December 6, 1992, an apparent nuclear explosion destroys Tokyo and starts World War III. By 2030, a new metropolis called Neo-Tokyo has been built on an artificial island in Tokyo Bay, but is gripped by political strife, anti-government terrorism, and gang violence. While riding in the ruins of old Tokyo, Tetsuo Shima, a member of the bosozoku Capsule gang led by Shotaro Kaneda, is injured when his bike explodes after the "Esper" Takashi—a psychic child with wizened features—blocks his path. This incident awakens psychic powers in Tetsuo, attracting the attention of a secret government project directed by Colonel Shikishima. These increasing powers unhinge Tetsuo's mind, exacerbating his inferiority complex about Kaneda and leading him to assume leadership of the rival Clown gang.
Meanwhile, Kaneda becomes involved with Kei, a member of the Resistance organization that stages acts of terrorism and espionage against the government. The Resistance—led by Kei's brother Ryu and parliament member Nezu—gets wind of Colonel Shikishima's project and a mysterious figure connected with it known as "Akira". Ryu and Nezu hope to use this leaked information, and try to restrict Kaneda's movements after he becomes too involved with their activities. However, when Tetsuo and the Clowns begin a violent city-wide turf war, Kaneda instigates a counter-attack that unites all of Neo-Tokyo's biker gangs against Tetsuo. The Clowns are easily defeated, but Tetsuo is nearly invincible because of his powers. Tetsuo kills Yamagata, a high-ranking Capsule, and astonishingly survives after being shot by Kaneda. Colonel Shikishima then arrives in a military helicopter with the powerful drugs needed to suppress Tetsuo's violent headaches, and extends an offer to join his secret project.
Kaneda, Kei, and Tetsuo are taken into military custody after the climax of Volume 1. They are held in a high-security military skyscraper in Neo-Tokyo, but Kei soon escapes after becoming possessed as a medium by another Esper, Kiyoko. Kei/Kiyoko briefly does battle with Tetsuo and frees Kaneda. After rapidly healing from his wounds, Tetsuo inquires about Akira, and forces Doctor Onishi, a project scientist, to take him to the Espers' playroom. There, a violent showdown unfolds between Tetsuo, Kaneda, Kei, and the Espers. It is during this encounter that Doctor Onishi decides to try to let Tetsuo harness Akira—the project's test subject that destroyed Tokyo—despite Tetsuo's disturbed personality. Upon learning that Akira is being stored in a cryogenic chamber beneath Neo-Tokyo's Olympic Stadium, Tetsuo escapes the skyscraper with the intent of releasing Akira.
The following day, Tetsuo enters the secret military base at the Olympic site, gruesomely killing any soldiers that get in his way. Colonel Shikishima comes to the base and tries to talk Tetsuo out of his plan; Kaneda and Kei enter the base through the sewers and witness the unfolding situation. Tetsuo ignores the Colonel's entreaties and breaks open the underground cryogenic chamber. He releases Akira, who turns out to be an ordinary-looking little boy. The terror of seeing Akira causes one of the Colonel's men to declare a state of emergency that causes massive panic in Neo-Tokyo. The Colonel himself tries to use a laser satellite called SOL to kill Tetsuo and Akira, but only succeeds in severing Tetsuo's arm. Tetsuo goes missing in the explosion, and Kaneda and Kei come across Akira outside of the base and—vaguely aware of who he is—take him back into Neo-Tokyo.
After Akira's release in Volume 2, both Colonel Shikishima's soldiers and followers of a former Esper named Lady Miyako begin scouring Neo-Tokyo in search for him. Kaneda, Kei, and a third Resistance member, Chiyoko, attempt to find refuge with Akira on Nezu's yacht. However, Nezu betrays them and kidnaps Akira for his own use, attempting to have them killed. They survive this attempt on their lives, and manage to snatch Akira from Nezu's mansion. The Colonel, desperate to find Akira and fed up with the government's tepid response to the crisis, mounts a coup d'etat and puts the city under martial law. The Colonel's men join Lady Miyako's acolytes and Nezu's private army in chasing Kaneda, Kei, Chiyoko, and Akira through the city.
The pursuit ends at a canal, with Akira about to be taken into the Colonel's custody. Nezu attempts to shoot Akira rather than have him be put into government hands; he is immediately fired upon and killed by the Colonel's men. However, Nezu's shot misses Akira and hits Takashi in the head, killing him instantly. The trauma of Takashi's death causes Akira to cause a second psychic explosion that utterly destroys Neo-Tokyo. Kei, Ryu, Chiyoko, Colonel Shikishima, and the other two Espers survive the catastrophe; Kaneda, however, disappears as he is enveloped by the psionic blast. After the city's destruction, Tetsuo—entirely absent during the volume—meets and accosts Akira.
Some time after the events of Volume 3, an American reconnaissance team led by George Yamada covertly arrives in the ruined Neo-Tokyo. Yamada learns that the city has been divided into two factions: the cult of Lady Miyako, which provides food and medicine for the destitute refugees; and the Great Tokyo Empire, a group of zealots led by Tetsuo with Akira as a figurehead, both worshiped as deities for performing "miracles". The Empire constantly harasses Miyako's group and kills any intruders with Tetsuo's psychic shock troops. Kiyoko and Masaru, the two remaining Espers, become targets for the Empire's fanatical soldiers; Kei, Chiyoko, the Colonel, and a former Capsule member named Kaisuke align themselves with Lady Miyako to protect them.
Yamada eventually becomes affiliated with Ryu, and updates the latter on how the world reacted to the events in Neo-Tokyo; they later learn that an American naval fleet lingers nearby. Tetsuo becomes heavily dependent on government-issued pills to quell his headaches. Seeking answers, he visits Lady Miyako at her temple where she gives him a comprehensive history of the government project that unleashed Akira. Miyako advises Tetsuo to quit the pills in order to become more powerful. Tetsuo begins an agonizing withdrawal. Meanwhile, Tetsuo's Aide stages an unsuccessful Empire assault on Miyako's temple. After the Colonel uses SOL to attack the Empire's army, a mysterious event opens a rift in the sky dumping massive debris from Akira's second explosion...as well as Kaneda.
After returning at the conclusion of Volume 4, Kaneda is reunited with Kei and joins Kaisuke and Joker—the former Clown leader—in planning an assault on the Great Tokyo Empire. Meanwhile, an international team of scientists meets up on an American aircraft carrier to study the recent psychic events in Neo-Tokyo, forming Project Juvenile "A". Ryu has a falling out with Yamada after learning that he plans to use biological weapons to assassinate Tetsuo and Akira; Yamada later escapes Ryu's confines and meets up with his arriving commando team. Akira and Tetsuo hold a rally at the Olympic Stadium to demonstrate their powers to the Empire faithful, which culminates with Tetsuo tearing a massive hole in the Moon's surface and encircling it with a ring of the debris.
Following the rally, Tetsuo's power begins to contort his physical body, causing it to absorb surrounding objects; he later learns that his abuse of his powers have caused them to expand beyond the confines of his body, giving him the ability to transmute inert matter into flesh and integrate it into his physical form. Tetsuo makes a series of visits on board the aircraft carrier to attack the scientists and do battle with American fighter jets. At one point, Tetsuo actually takes over the ship and launches a nuclear weapon over the ocean. Kei—accepting the role of a medium controlled by Lady Miyako and the Espers—arrives to battle Tetsuo. Meanwhile, Kaneda, Kai, and their small army of bikers arrive at the Olympic Stadium to begin their all-out assault on the Great Tokyo Empire.
Kaneda and his new gang continue the assault on the Stadium that started in Volume 5. Tetsuo returns from his battle with Kei and faces Yamada's team, but absorbs their biological attacks and temporarily regains control of his powers. Tetsuo kills Yamada and the commandos; he also eludes Colonel Shikishima's attempts to kill him by guiding SOL with a laser designator. Kaneda confronts Tetsuo, and the two begin an epic fight; they are joined by Kei. However, the brawl is interrupted when the American navy—horrified by Tetsuo's previous attack—tries to carpet bomb Neo-Tokyo, then gut it outright with its own laser satellite, FLOYD. Tetsuo flies into space and brings down FLOYD, causing it to crash down upon the aircraft carrier, killing the navy's fleet admiral and some of the scientists.
After the battle, Tetsuo unsuccessfully tries to resurrect Kaori, a girl he had been acquainted with who was killed in the battle. He heads down to Akira's old cryogenic chamber beneath the stadium, carrying her body. Kaneda and his friends appear to fight Tetsuo once more, but his powers transform him into a monstrous mass resembling a fetus, absorbing everything near him. Tetsuo pulls the cryogenic chamber above-ground and drops it onto Lady Miyako's temple. Lady Miyako dies while defying Tetsuo, but not before guiding Kei into space to fire upon him with SOL. Kei's attack awakens Tetsuo's full powers, triggering a psionic reaction similar to Akira's.
With the help of Kiyoko, Masaru, and a resurrected Takashi, Akira is able to cancel out Tetsuo's explosion with one of his own.
Following the climax, the United Nations sends forces to help the surviving parties of Neo-Tokyo. Kaneda and his friends confront them, declaring the city's soverignty as the Great Tokyo Empire and warning them that Akira still lives. Kaneda and Kei meet up with Colonel Shikishima, and part ways as friends. As Kaneda and Kei ride through Neo-Tokyo, they see ghostly visions of Tetsuo and Yamagata. They also see the city shedding its ruined facade, returning to its former splendor.
Script error: No such module "anchor".Shōtarō Kaneda (金田 正太郎 Kaneda Shōtarō?)
- A teenage delinquent and the leader of a motorcycle gang known as The Capsules (briefly referred to as "The Heroics" in the anime adaptation). Kaneda is best friends with Tetsuo, a Capsule member, but that friendship is shattered after Tetsuo gains and abuses his psychic powers. Kaneda is the main protagonist of Akira. According to Akira Club, Kaneda was inspired by the boy lead from Tetsujin 28. Due to his influence on Tetsuo, Kaneda is the only regular person who without aid can physically hurt him, even after he has gained his powers.
- Tetsuo Shima (島 鉄雄 Shima Tetsuo?)
- Kaneda's best friend, a member of Kaneda's gang, and eventually Kaneda's nemesis. He is involved in an accident at the very beginning of the story, which causes him to display immense psychic powers. He is soon recruited by the Colonel and given the designation #41. However, Tetsuo's mental instability increases with the manifestation of his powers, which ultimately drives him insane and shatters his friendship with Kaneda. Later in the story he becomes Akira's second-in-command, before he begins to lose control of his powers. Tetsuo is the main antagonist (and possible anti-hero) of Akira. Tetsuo is named after a Tetsujin 28 character, Professor Shikishima's son, Tetsuo Shikishima.
- Kei (ケイ?)
- A member of a terrorist resistance movement led by the government mole Nezu, Kei is supposedly the sister of fellow resistance fighter Ryu, though it is implied that this is not really the case. Kei and Kaneda do not get along when they first meet, and Kei at first seems to view Kaneda with contempt. Later in the story, however, the two become increasingly attracted and fall in love with each other. Kei is a powerful medium who cannot use psychic powers of her own, but can channel the powers of others through her body. She is taken in by Lady Miyako, and plays a critical role in the final battle.
- The Colonel (大佐 Taisa?)
- Sometimes known as Colonel Shikishima (敷島大佐 Shikishima Taisa?), he is the head of the secret government project conducting research on psychic test subjects, including the Esper children, Tetsuo, and formerly Akira. Although he originally appears to be an antagonist, the Colonel is actually an honorable and dedicated soldier committed to protecting Neo-Tokyo from any second onslaught of Akira. Later in the story he appears helping an ill Chiyoko, and working with Kei. He is usually referred to by Kaneda as "The Skinhead", due to his distinctive crew cut.
- The Espers
- Three 'children' who are test subjects for the secret project, also known as The Numbers (ナンバーズ Nanbāzu?). They have the bodies of children but chronologically are in their late 40's. Their bodies and faces have wizened with age but they haven't physically grown, either because of their powers, the battery of tests and surgeries performed on them, the drugs used to keep those powers in check, or a combination of the three. They are former acquaintances of Akira, and survived his destruction of Tokyo. The Espers include:
- Kiyoko (キヨコ?)
- Designated #25, Kiyoko is an Esper who is physically so weak she is confined to a bed. She has the ability to use teleportation and precognition. In the anime it is shown she is a close friend of the colonel due to her being confident enough to not only tell him of her predictions but also tell him the location of Tetsuo. She is also shown to be a mother figure and leader to the other espers when it comes to decision making.
- Takashi (タカシ?)
- Designated #26, Takashi is the first Esper to be introduced when he causes Tetsuo's accident in self-defense. He has the power to use psychokinesis. Takashi is accidentally killed by Nezu, but is revived along with the rest of the Espers near the end of the manga.
- Masaru (マサル?)
- Designated #27, Masaru is physically confined either to a wheelchair or a special floating chair. He has the power to use psychokinesis and is considered the leader of the three.
- Akira (アキラ?)
- The character for whom the story is named. Designated #28, Akira has immense, almost godlike psychic powers, although from outward appearances he looks like a small, normal child. He is responsible for the destruction of Tokyo and the beginning of World War III, though this was probably unintentional on his part (he is so psychically powerful that a simple act like teleporting can create a psychic shockwave able to cause destruction on a massive scale). After the war, he was put in a cryogenic chamber not far from the Heart of Destruction (the crater left by Akira's onslaught) and the future site of the Neo-Tokyo Olympic Games. Shortly after being awoken by Tetsuo, he causes the destruction of Neo-Tokyo during a confrontation between Kaneda and the Colonel's forces. Later in the story he becomes Emperor of the Great Tokyo Empire. When he first appears, we see that Akira has not aged in the decades he was kept frozen. Akira is essentially an empty shell; his powers have overwritten and destroyed his personality, leaving someone who almost never speaks or reacts to external stimuli, with a constant blank expression on his face. In the end he is shot by Ryu while psychically synced with the increasingly unstable Tetsuo. It is at this moment he is reunited with his friends and regains his personality. Akira was inspired by the demon from the anime adaptation of Osamu Tezuka's Saiyuki.
- Kai (甲斐?)
- Sometimes known as Kaisuke, he is a high-ranking member of Kaneda's gang. He does not play a major role at first, but becomes more prominent later in the story.
- Yamagata (山形?)
- A member of Kaneda's biker gang, who serves as Kaneda's right-hand-man. He is killed by Tetsuo's powers in the first tankōbon after attempting to shoot him.
- Joker (ジョーカー Jōkā?)
- The leader of the Clown gang, a motorcycle gang made up of junkies and drug addicts. Joker plays a small role in the beginning, but becomes more prominent much later in the story as an ally of Kaneda and Kai. He wears clown face paint and often changes the pattern.
- Nezu (根津?)
- A parliament member who is also the leader of the terrorist resistance movement against the government. He seems to be the mentor of Kei and Ryu, and purports to be saving the nation from the corrupt and ineffective bureaucrats in power. It soon becomes evident, however, that Nezu is just as corrupt, and that all he seeks to do is to seize power for himself. He later betrays Lady Miyako, as well as various other characters, as he attempts to take control of Akira. After losing Akira, he finds Ryu in a dark corridor with the boy in tow. He attempts to kill Ryu, thinking he is a member of Lady Miyako's group all along. Ryu, however, shoots Nezu. He fakes his death and later comes back. He later tries to shoot Akira before he can be taken into the Colonel's custody. He misses and shoots Takashi in the head, instantly killing him. He was in turn shot and killed by the Colonel's men.
- Ryu (竜 Ryū?)
- A comrade of Kei's in the resistance movement, he claims to be Kei's brother, but it is implied that this is not the case. As the story progresses, Ryu abandons his terrorist roots and becomes more heroic, working with George Yamada and guiding Kaneda to Akira's chamber where Tetsuo is held up, but battles with alcoholism. In the final tankōbon, Ryu shoots and "kills" Akira; elevator debris lands on him shortly afterwards.
- Chiyoko (チヨコ?)
- Claiming to be Kei's aunt, she is a tough, heavyset woman and weapons expert who is involved in the resistance and eventually becomes a key supporting character.
- The Doctor (ドクター Dokutā?)
- Sometimes known in other media as Doctor Onishi (ドクター大西 Dokutā Ōnishi?), the head scientist of the secret psychic research project who also serves as the Colonel scientific advisor. He belonged to the second generation of scientists overseeing the project after Akira killed the last. It is his curiosity and negligence for anyone's well-being that unlocks and nurtures Tetsuo's destructive power in the first place. When Akira is freed by Tetsuo from his cryogenic lair, the Doctor fails to get inside the shelter and freezes to death.
- Miyako (ミヤコ Miyako?)
- Frequently referred to as Lady Miyako (ミヤコ様 Miyako-sama?), a former test subject known as #19, she is the high priestess of a temple in Neo-Tokyo, and a major ally of Kaneda and Kei as the story progresses. She is also an initial ally of Nezu, and gives Tetsuo a lecture on his powers. She plays an instrumental role in the final battle with Tetsuo at the cost of her own life.
- Sakaki (榊?)
- An empowered and fond disciple of Lady Miyako, an unseemingly fast and strong girl who is sent to battle the Espers, the military, Kaneda and Nezu in order to recover Akira. She only appears in the third tankōbon, in which she is killed by the military.
- Mozu (モズ?)
- Another empowered girl, disciple of Lady Miyako, who later teams with Sakaki and Miki to recover Akira. She only appears in the third tankōbon, in which she is killed by Takashi.
- Miki (ミキ?)
- A third disciple of Lady Miyako. Another empowered girl. She only appears and in the third tankōbon, in which she is killed by Nezu's henchmen.
- The Monks
- Aides of Lady Miyako, and to some extent, enhancers and channellers of her power.
- The Great Tokyo Empire (大東京帝國 Dai Tōkyō Teikoku?)
- A small army which rises amid the ruins of Neo-Tokyo after its destruction at the hands of Akira, made up of crazed zealots who worship Akira as an Emperor for the "miracles" he performs, though the power lies squarely with his so-called Prime Minister, Tetsuo. Disorganized and unruly, the army rejects outside aid and wars with Lady Miyako's followers. Tetsuo secretly drugs the rations distributed to its members.
- Kaori (カオリ?)
- A young girl who appears late in the story and is recruited as one of Tetsuo's sex slaves, later becoming an object of his sincere affections. She also serves as Akira's babysitter. She is later shot in the back by Tetsuo's Aide. Tetsuo attempts to resurrect her but fails.
- Tetsuo's Aide
- Known only by the title of Captain (隊長 Taichō?), an opportunist posing as a fanatical devotee of Tetsuo who serves him as his aide-de-camp late in the story, but secretly desires control of the Great Tokyo Empire. During the confrontation between Tetsuo and the U.S. Marines, he is caught in the crossfire and is killed by the bacterial gas Yamada uses.
- The Birdman
- One of Tetsuo's elite psychic shocktroops, he wears a blindfold and is frequently standing atop ruined buildings and rafters, observing and reporting on the goings-on within the Empire's turf, essentially acting as a security system. It is implied that his psychic powers allow him to sense sights and sounds from a great distance, further embodied by the all-seeing eye drawn on his forehead. Birdman dies when Yamada knocks him from his perch, causing him to fall to his death.
- The Eggman
- A member of Tetsuo's shock troops, a fat, short man with glasses who encounters Yamada and the Marines at Olympic Stadium. He was friends with "Birdman", and managed to use his power to crush a Marine's heart before being executed by Yamada.
- At the end of the story, Kaneda and friends take the Empire's name and declare Neo-Tokyo a sovereign nation, expelling the American and United Nations forces that land in the city.
- George Yamada (ジョージ山田 Jōji Yamada?)
- A Japanese-American soldier who is sent on a mission to assassinate Akira and Tetsuo in the latter-half of the story, after Akira has levelled Neo-Tokyo. Yamada plans to kill the two powerful psychics with darts containing a biological poison. He is later joined by a team of U.S. Marines to carry out the mission at the Olympic Stadium after it becomes the headquarters for Akira and Tetsuo's "Great Tokyo Empire". However, the biochemical weapons fail to harm Tetsuo, instead giving him temporary control of his expanding powers again, who proceeds to kill Yamada.
- Project "Juvenile A"
- An international team of scientists who are appointed to investigate psychic events in Neo-Tokyo in the latter-half of the story. Project members include Dr. Dubrovsky, Dr. Simmons, Dr. Jorris, Dr. Hock, Professor Bernardi, and Karma Tangi.
- Robots built by the Army to fight off invaders and contact survivors in the event of a nuclear war; they are introduced in the third tankōbon during martial law after Tetsuo frees Akira dispatching rioters. Later in the story, the Colonel uses a Caretaker to transport Kiyoko to Lady Miyako's Temple, and later another Caretaker is heavily modified to become Kaneda and Kai's assault vehicle on Olympic Stadium.
Otomo had previously created Fireball (1979), an unfinished series in which he disregarded accepted manga art styles and which established his interest in science fiction as a setting. The setting was again used the following year in Domu, which was awarded the Science Fiction Grand Prix and became a bestseller. Otomo then began work on his most ambitious work to date, Akira. Inspired by both the American movie Star Wars and the Japanese animated series Tetsujin 28, Otomo created a work centred in the emerging cyberpunk tradition. The story launched in 1982, serialised in Japan's Young Magazine, and concluded in July 1990. The work, totalling over 2000 pages, was then collected and released in six volumes by Kodansha. Concurrently with working on the series, Otomo agreed to an anime adaptation of the work provided he retained creative control. This insistence was based on his experiences working on Harmagedon. The film itself was released in Japan in 1988, and to Western audiences from 1990 through 1991.
In 1988, the manga was published in the United States by Epic Comics, a division of Marvel Comics. This colorized version ended its 38-issue run in 1995. The coloring was by Steve Oliff, hand-picked for the role by Otomo. Oliff persuaded Marvel to use computer coloring, and Akira became the first ongoing comic book to feature computer coloring. The coloring was more subtle than that seen before and far beyond the capabilities of Japanese technology of the time. It played an important part in Akira's success in Western markets, and revolutionised the way comics were colorized. Delays in the publication were caused by Otomo's retouching of artwork for the Japanese collections. It was these works which formed the basis for translation, rather than the initial serialisation. The Epic edition suffered significant delays toward the end of the serial, requiring several years to publish the final 8 issues. Marvel planned to collect the colorized versions as a 13-volume paperback series, and teamed with Graphitti Designs to release six limited-edition hardcover volumes; however, the collected editions ceased in 1993, so the final 3 paperbacks and planned sixth hardcover volume were never published. A new edition of Akira was later published in paperback from 2000 to 2002 by Dark Horse Comics, and in the UK by Titan Books, this time in black and white with a new translation although Otomo's painted color pages were used minimally at the start of each book as in the original manga. This version is thought by some[who?] to be closer to the original serialisation than the Marvel/Epic translation. A partially colourized version was serialised in British comic/magazine Manga Mania in the early to mid '90s.
The serial nature of the work influenced the storyline structure, allowing for numerous sub-plots, a large cast and an extended middle sequence. This allowed for a focus on destructive imagery and afforded Otomo the chance to portray a strong sense of movement. He also established a well-realised science fiction setting, and through his art evoked a strong sense of emotion within both character and reader. The work has no consistent main character, but Shotaro Kaneda and Tetsuo Shima are central protagonists.
Akira, like Otomo's other works (such as Domu), revolves around the basic idea of individuals with superhuman powers, especially psychokinetic abilities. However, these are not central to the story, which instead concerns itself with character, societal pressures and political machination. Motifs common in the manga include youth alienation, government corruption and inefficiency, and a military grounded in old-fashioned Japanese honor, displeased with the compromises of modern society.
Jenny Kwok Wah Lau writes in Multiple Modernities that Akira is a "direct outgrowth of war and postwar experiences." She argues that Otomo grounds the work in recent Japanese history and culture, using the atomic bombing of Japan during World War II, alongside the economic resurgence and issues relating to over-crowding as inspirations and underlying issues. Thematically the work centres on the nature of youth to rebel against authority, control methods, community building and the transformation experienced in adolescent passage. The latter is best represented in the work by the morphing experienced by characters.
Susan Napier has identified this morphing and metamorphosis as a factor which marks the work as postmodern; "a genre which suggests that identity is in constant fluctuation." She also sees the work as an attack on the Japanese establishment, arguing that Otomo satirizes aspects of Japanese culture, in particular schooling and the rush for new technology. Akira's central images, of characters aimlessly roaming the streets on motor bikes is seen to represent the futility of the quest for self-knowledge. The work also focuses on loss, with all characters in some form orphaned and having no sense of history. The landscapes depicted are ruinous, with old Tokyo represented only by a dark crater. The nihilistic nature of the work is felt by Napier to tie into a wider theme present in Japanese literature of the time.
The series has won a great deal of recognition in the industry, including the 1984 Kodansha Manga Award for best general manga. It was also nominated for the Harvey Award for Best Graphic Album of Previously Published Work in 2002. In her book The Fantastic in Japanese Literature, Susan Napier described the work as a "no holds barred enjoyment of fluidity and chaos". The work is credited as having introduced both manga and anime to Western audiences. The translation of the work into French in 1991 by Glénat "opened the floodgates to the Japanese invasion." The imagery in Akira, together with that of Blade Runner formed the blueprint for similar Japanese works of a dystopian nature of the late 1990s. Examples include Ghost in the Shell and Armitage III. Akira cemented Otomo's reputation and the success of the animated feature allowed him to concentrate on film rather than the manga form in which his career began.
The movie led the way for the growing popularity of anime in the West, with Akira considered a forerunner of the second wave of anime fandom that began in the early 1990s. One of the reasons for the movie's success was the highly advanced quality of its animation. At the time, most anime was notorious for cutting production corners with limited motion, such as having only the characters' mouths move while their faces remained static. Akira broke from this trend with meticulously detailed scenes, exactingly lip-synched dialogue — a first for an anime production (voices were recorded before the animation was completed, rather than the opposite) — and super-fluid motion as realized in the film's more than 160,000 animation cels.
While most of the character designs and basic settings were directly adapted from the original 2,182-page manga epic, the restructured plot of the movie differs considerably from the print version, pruning much of the last half of the book. The film Akira is regarded by many critics as a landmark anime film, one that influenced much of the art in the anime world that followed its release.
In 2003 TokyoPop published a reverse adaption of sorts in the form of an Akira "Cine-Manga." The format consists of animation cels from the film version cut up and arranged with word balloons in order to resemble comic book panels.
A graphic adventure game based on the animated movie adaptation was released in 1988 by Taito for the Famicom console. The video game version has the player in the role of Kaneda, with the storyline starting with Kaneda and his motorcycle gang in police custody. In 1994, a British-made action game was released for the Amiga CD32, and in 2002 Bandai released a pinball simulation, Akira Psycho Ball for the PlayStation 2.
At the end of the last couple of single volumes of the manga, the Marvel/Epic editions of the series included Akira "fan art" from various industry alumni, such as John Romita, Jean Giraud, and Dave Gibbons.
- In various interviews with the U.S. edition of Shonen Jump, Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto has cited the Akira manga and anime as major influences, particularly as the basis of his own manga career.
- Acclaimed anime director Satoshi Kon was credited for some of the artwork in the Marvel editions of Akira.
Volume 1 only was also available in a limited edition hardcover version with nicer stock paper as an exclusive to Barnes and Noble.
- Akira, Volume 1 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-498-3 Release: December 2000
- Akira, Volume 2 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-499-1 Release: March 2001
- Akira, Volume 3 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-525-4 Release: June 2001
- Akira, Volume 4 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-526-2 Release: September 2001
- Akira, Volume 5 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-527-0 Release: December 2001
- Akira, Volume 6 : Publisher: Dark Horse ISBN 1-56971-528-9 Release: March 2002
In 2009, Random House started releasing the Akira volumes under their license.
- Akira, Volume 1 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-900-0 Release: October 13, 2009
- Akira, Volume 2 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-902-7 Release: June 8, 2010
- Akira, Volume 3 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-904-3 Release: July 13, 2010
- Akira, Volume 4 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-906-X Release: November 9, 2010
- Akira, Volume 5 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-907-8 Release: March 1, 2011
- Akira, Volume 6 : Publisher: Random House ISBN 1-93542-908-6 Release: April 12, 2011
- Amano, Masanao; Julius Wiedemann (2004). Manga Design. Taschen. p. 138. ISBN 3822825913. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Gresh, Lois H.; Robert Weinberg (2005). The Science of Anime. Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 168. ISBN 1560257687. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Brooks, Brad; Tim Pilcher (2005). The Essential Guide to World Comics. London: Collins & Brown. p. 103. ISBN 1-84340-300-5. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Martinez, Dolores P. (1998). The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521637295.
- Schilling, Mark (1997). The Encyclopedia of Japanese Pop Culture. Weatherhill. p. 174. ISBN 0834803801.
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- Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. p. 7. ISBN 1556525915.
- Kôsei, Ono (Winter, 1996). "Manga Publishing: Trends in the United States". Japanese Book News (The Japan Foundation) 1 (16): 6–7. ISSN 0918-9580. Check date values in:
- Kwok Wah Lau, Jenny (2003). Multiple Modernities. Temple University Press. pp. 189–90. ISBN 1566399866.
- Jolliffe Napier, Susan (1996). The Fantastic in Modern Japanese Literature. Routledge. pp. 214–8. ISBN 0415124581.
- Joel Hahn. "Kodansha Manga Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- Bush, Laurence C. (2001). Asian Horror Encyclopedia. Writers Club Press. p. 7. ISBN 0595201814.
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- Production insights, Akira #3 (Epic Comics, 1988). Kanye West has a tribute to the anime film in his Stronger video.
- "Akira - Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes".
- "Random House Author Page". Cite error: Invalid
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|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to [[commons: Category:Akira (manga)
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